The Review Body on Bid Challenges is an organization set up by party states that allows suppliers to challenge irregular government tenders. [5] These bodies are independent and strive to deal with each case quickly. The review body is also empowered to recommend rapid interim measures, which can be recommended within days, when an evaluation body finds a first-application case for an auction challenge. [6] GPA membership is limited to WTO members who have expressly signed or subsequently joined the GPA. WTO members are not required to join the GPA, but the United States urges all WTO members to participate in this important agreement. Several countries, including China, Russia and the Kyrgyz Republic, are negotiating GPA membership. The text of the agreement establishes rules that require open, fair and transparent conditions of competition for public procurement. However, these rules do not automatically apply to all purchasing activities of each party. On the contrary, hedging schedules play a key role in determining whether or not a buying activity is covered by the agreement. Only purchase activities carried out by listed companies that purchase goods, services or listed works above the specified thresholds are covered by the agreement. These calendars are open to the public. The liberalisation of public procurement is likely to generate benefits both in terms of the efficiency of public procurement and commercial interests. For this reason, WTO members have worked on this issue on three fronts, namely: the purchase of US requirements can be abandoned in three circumstances: (1) when it is decided that it is in the public interest to do so; (2) if the cost of U.S.-made products is inadequate; or (3) if the products are not available in sufficient quality or quantity by U.S.

manufacturers. Since the GPA negotiation, a fourth circumstance has been introduced: Buy American may be removed with respect to the takeover bids of countries that have granted reciprocal access to their own domestic markets. The WTO secretariat provides technical assistance to help WTO members from developing countries who wish to learn more about the GPA and/or GPA. If so, and desired by the candidate countries, other intergovernmental organizations (for example. B regional development banks) or governance institutions may also provide technical assistance for GPA membership. The signatories of the GPA agreed that companies from other signatory countries will not be treated less favourably in terms of public procurement than domestic firms, in accordance with the principles of national treatment and non-discrimination. Locally created businesses are no less well treated because they are of foreign origin or because the goods and services they offer are of foreign origin. Orit Frenkel is Executive Director of the American Leadership Initiative, which advances a new paradigm of intelligent power for American global leadership. She is also president of Frenkel Strategies, a consulting firm specializing in trade and Asia.

Prior to that, she was a GE executive for 26 years and previously a trade negotiator in the U.S. Trade Representative`s office. The GPA is a multi-lateral agreement within the WTO framework, which means that not all WTO members are parties to the agreement. Currently, the agreement consists of 20 parties, with 48 WTO members. Thirty-six WTO members/observers participate in the GPA committee as observers. Of these, 12 members are in the process of joining the agreement. There are 33 observer countries in the GPA, 10 of which are in the process of accession: Albania, China, Georgia, Jordan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Northern Macedonia, Oman, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan.